Dyslexia represent from 80 to 90% of all learning disabilities: It is a difficulty with the alphabet, reading, writing and spelling in spite of normal or above-normal intelligence, conventional teaching methods, and adequate social cultural opportunity. Dyslexia it is thought to be genetic and hereditary.
Characteristics of Dyslexia
The dyslexic person can encounter difficulties in many areas, including:
•Associating sound (phonetics) with the symbol (grapheme).
•Appropriate sequence if individual letters, and a series of letters which make up a word, in the reading or writing process (e.g. b-d, was-saw, quiet-quite).
•Correctly writing letters of the alphabet in the proper sequence.
•Confusion with math symbols.
•Difficulty memorizing non-phonetic words.
•Distinguishing left from right, east from west.
•Expressing clear ideas verbally.
•Expressing ideas in writing.
•Finding the right word when talking.
•Finding a word in the dictionary.
•Memorizing multiplication tables (sequential memory).
•Naming the letters.
•Reading, spelling, writing.
•Telling time, days of the week, months of the year.
As well, other symptoms of dyslexia include:
•Inordinate amount of time spent on homework.
•Inconsistent performance and grades from day-to-day.
•High stress resulting from having to perform on the spot.
•Lack of organization and study habits that are not in keeping with the person’s level of intelligence.
Forms of Dyslexia
The Dyslexia Determination Test (DDT) will determine the three fundamental types of dyslexia and its seven permutation patterns. It is used to investigate specific aspects of language problems relating to reading, writing, and spelling. The test is in three parts; the first one involves checking for written reversals of numbers and letters. The second part tests the mode of decoding words: eidetic or phonetic. The third and last part consists of assessing whether encoding is eidetic or phonetic.
There are three fundamental types of dyslexia:
Dyseidesia (visual): A deficit in the ability to recognize whole words by sight and match them to whole-word sounds.
Example: The student reads ball instead of bell. The student writes enuf instead of enoug
Dysnemkinesia (motor): A deficit in remembering how to do the movements needed for writing.
Example: The student will make reversals. The student will write b instead of d.
Dysphonesia (auditory): The inability to sound off, to syllabicate, to pronounce, and to distinguish sounds of unfamiliar words.
Example: The student reads house instead of home. The student writes aminal instead of animal.
Simultaneous Multisensory Teaching
The Simultaneous Multisensory Teaching Program (S.M.T.), is a unique language remediation system designed to satisfy the needs of students with dyslexia of all age groups. Although they have normal or above average intelligence, people with dyslexia generally obtain lower grades with conventional teaching methods. They are more receptive to programs such as S.M.T. as it is founded on a multisensory approach, and simultaneously uses visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic modalities.
S.M.T. stresses reading accuracy during its initial lessons and then emphasizes reading comprehension. All material is accessible in brief, sequential steps, which allow students to develop self-confidence. Students always progress at-their-own-pace. It is essential that S.M.T. instructors become completely familiar with how to apply the S.M.T. system.
IMPORTANT: A student with a Non-Verbal Learning Disability and/or a visual perception problem will not demonstrate characteristics of dyslexia on the DDT.
The above dyslexia tests are available from the Canadian Dyslexia Centre.
Special Needs Schools
As alternative education, Special Needs schools cater to those students who have been diagnosed with any degree of physical disability, mental disability, communicative disorder, behavioural disorder, or who are gifted. Placement is by choice, determined by a school’s policy or by those with the best interests of the student. There is an official process for placement, outlined by the educational authority governing the location of the Special Needs school.
By law, all public schools are required to have special education programs. However, not all schools are always able to meet the specific special needs of your child. For this reason, parents can choose from a variety of schools that provide a suitable learning environment structured for the child with high needs.
Some parents may find it difficult to enroll their child in Special Needs schools due to financial barriers. Fortunately, in many provinces and states throughout North America, funding is available through public and private organizations.
Special education utilizes a curriculum specifically devised by a team to address the needs of each student in order to promote their learning process, and will change according to the advancement made by the student. Therefore, in Special Needs schools the curriculum is unique for each individual. The course of study normally includes non-academic topics. The goal for these topics is for pupils to form a foundation, which will prepare them for life after school, in the workplace or in a post secondary institution, and as a participant within their community.
Dedicated schools for special needs offer their best to students with special learning difficulties:
•Special needs schools emphasize social development
•Schools for special needs commit to each students learning style
•Special needs schools offer individualized instruction
•Special needs schools see the child’s potential, not deficiencies
•Students at special needs schools are encouraged to stand on their own
The Hanen Centre http://www.iser.com/hanen-ON.html
The Hanen Centre is an international charitable organization dedicated to helping young children with language delays – and those at risk of developing language delays – to communicate to the best of their abilities, by developing practical, user-friendly programs and resources for parents, educators and other important people in children’s lives.
You can find out more from each of the schools linked below, to learn what it means to be a ‘special needs school.’
•Alderwood Toronto (Private School)
•Arrowsmith School Toronto (Special Needs/Alternative)
•Blyth Academy Toronto (Traditional/Overseas)
•Brighton School Toronto (Special Needs/Alternative)
•The Junior Academy Toronto (Traditional)
•Kohai Educational Centre Toronto (special Needs/Alternative
•Lycée Français de Toronto (Traditional/Alternative)
•Montcrest School Toronto (Traditional)
•Shoore Centre for Learning Toronto (Special Needs/Alternative)
•St. Michael’s College School Toronto (Traditional/Faith Based)
•Willow Wood School Toronto (Traditional/ Special Needs)
For more information on the above schools, please visit the following web site – http://www.ourkids.net
For more interesting information: http://www.ghotit.com/spelling-and-grammar-checker.shtml