A recent analysis of samples returned from a comet reveals that the material that formed the comets must once have been wet and hot, thus countervailing decades of conventional theory about cometary origins and life cycles.
In a study recently submitted to Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Dante Lauretta, Eve Berger, and other investigators at the University of Arizona, the Johnson Space Center (NASA), and the Naval Research Laboratory analyzed some of the dust grains that NASA’s Stardust mission recovered and brought back from a brief encounter with Comet Wild 2 (pronounced “Vildt” and named for its discoverer, Paul Wild).
In our samples, we found minerals that formed in the presence of liquid water. At some point in its history, the comet must have harbored pockets of water.
The problem: conventional theory assumes that comets are “dirty snowballs,” formed entirely from accretion of ice. But the Wild-2 samples contain cubanite (copper iron sulfide) and other iron sulfides that could only have formed in hot water.
How hot? Anywhere from 50 to 200 Celsius. That’s equivalent to 122 to 392 Fahrenheit. (The upper limit is actually 210 Celsius, or 410 Fahrenheit.) Those are pressure-cooker temperatures. This is the key: liquid water cannot exist at most of those temperatures (the ones higher than 100 Celsius) in the absence of pressures significantly higher than ambient.
Richard Kerr, who has long been a senior editor at the journal Science, observed the next day (April 6) that the minerals must have formed in “warm liquid water.” As Walt Brown, originator of the Hydroplate Theory, suggested to this Examiner today, “warm” doesn’t half say it. The proper adjective would be “scalding hot.” What’s more, Kerr has known this for five years. But a close read of Kerr’s earlier article reveals another problem:
Since the return to Earth on 15 January, analysts have isolated mineral crystals such as olivine, pyroxene, anorthosite, spinel, and titanium nitride. All these minerals formed at moderately high to extremely high temperatures, Stardust principal investigator Donald Brownlee of the University of Washington, Seattle, told a press conference at NASA’s nearby Johnson Space Center. Temperatures greater than 1100 degrees Celsius would be needed to fuse the particles, especially those resembling calcium-aluminum inclusions found in meteorites.
1100 degrees Celsius (2012 Fahrenheit) is far beyond cooking and is typical for brick firing. And once again, this cannot occur at ambient pressure.
Dr. Brownlee ventured to suggest that these minerals formed either toward the core of the solar system’s original accretion disk or in close orbit around another star. But that cannot save the traditional comet-formation theory. In point of fact, every comet must have formed from water that was once liquid, and eventually froze and crystallized as it cooled nearly to absolute zero (the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular or atomic motion ceases). And now even conventional scientists have admitted this.
But those same scientists violate Occam’s Razor when they attempt to explain it. The simple explanation is this: comets formed from what was once supercritical water, which is well-known to dissolve minerals more efficiently than any other solvent. This water existed as the earth’s original subcrustal ocean. That ocean broke free of its confinement, and the Mid-Oceanic Ridge system marks the break-out spot. As this water expanded, it cooled, and could then form the cubanite and other iron sulfides before it cooled to near-absolute zero. That same breakout event was also the trigger of the Global Flood.
The Wild-2 samples have previously yielded glycine, simplest of the amino acids.
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