Researchers from Auburn University, Texas A&M University, and the University of South Florida reported the discovery of a correlation of mosquito bite patterns and reproductive cycles in animals at the Public Library of Science on March 7, 2011.
This is the first time animal reproductive cycles and mosquito bite patterns have been demonstrated to be related.
The discovery has great significance in aiding the prevention of the transfer of viruses from animal hosts to humans through mosquitoes.
Although not covered in the report, a similar pattern may be in play with humans. Women may be more susceptible to mosquito bites during menstruation than at other times. The research could also mean pregnant women are more attractive to mosquitoes as well as women who have recently given birth.
“Our data suggest that seasonal changes in patterns of host use by mosquitoes reflect the breeding cycles of their host animals. For endothermic hosts—deer and herons—we found that peaks in host use by mosquitoes were remarkably synchronized with peaks in reproductive investment.”
Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1) the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2) the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in host use by mosquitoes are driven by temporal patterns of host reproduction. We investigated the relationship between seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes and host reproductive phenology by examining a seven-year dataset of blood meal identifications from a site in Tuskegee National Forest, Alabama USA and data on reproduction from the most commonly utilized endothermic (white-tailed deer, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron) and ectothermic (frogs) hosts. Our analysis revealed that feeding on each host peaked during periods of reproductive activity. Specifically, mosquitoes utilized herons in the spring and early summer, during periods of peak nest occupancy, whereas deer were fed upon most during the late summer and fall, the period corresponding to the peak in births for deer. For frogs, however, feeding on early- and late-season breeders paralleled peaks in male vocalization. We demonstrate for the first time that seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes track the reproductive phenology of the hosts. Peaks in relative mosquito feeding on each host during reproductive phases are likely the result of increased tolerance and decreased vigilance to attacking mosquitoes by nestlings and brooding adults (avian hosts), quiescent young (avian and mammalian hosts), and mate-seeking males (frogs).
Host Reproductive Phenology Drives Seasonal Patterns of Host Use in Mosquitoes
Nathan D. Burkett-Cadena 1*, Christopher J. W. McClure 2, Russell A. Ligon 2, Sean P. Graham 2, Craig Guyer 2, Geoffrey E. Hill 2, Stephen S. Ditchkoff 3, Micky D. Eubanks 4, Hassan K. Hassan 5, Thomas R. Unnasch 5
1 Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
2 Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
3 School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama
4 Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas
5 Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida
Citation: Burkett-Cadena ND, McClure CJW, Ligon RA, Graham SP, Guyer C, et al. (2011) Host Reproductive Phenology Drives Seasonal Patterns of Host Use in Mosquitoes. PLoS ONE 6(3): e17681. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017681